Angielski-czeski tłumaczenie bone słownik normal blood sugar levels after eating for non diabetics

5. formerly Bône; Seaport (population in 1998: 348,554), northeastern Algeria. Identified with the port of ancient Hippo (or Hippo Regius) to the south, it was a rich city of Roman Africa until #0441; AD 300. It was home to St. Augustine 396–430. Severely damaged by the Vandals in 431, it was rebuilt by the Arabs in the 7th century and named Bona. It was occupied by the French in 1832 when they took over the area. Modern Annaba is Algeria’s chief exporter of minerals; it also serves as a trading port and port of call.

6. anemia of bone-marrow failure; Inadequate blood-cell formation by bone marrow. Pancytopenia is the lack of all blood-cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets), but any combination may be missing. Drug, chemical, or radiation exposure most often causes the disease, but about half of all cases have no known cause.

It may occur at any age. Acute disease may be quickly severe, even fatal; chronic disease has symptoms including weakness, shortness of breath, headache, fever and pounding heart. There is usually a waxy pallor. Hemorrhages occur in mucous membranes, skin and other organs. Lack of white blood cells lowers resistance to infection and becomes the major cause of death. Very low platelet count may lead to severe bleeding. The treatment of choice is bone-marrow transplantation. Otherwise treatment involves avoiding any known toxic agent and giving fluids, glucose and proteins (often intravenously) as well as blood components and antibiotics.

7. Rigid connective tissue of vertebrates, consisting of cells embedded in a hard matrix. Bones serve as the body’s supporting framework, provide muscle-attachment points for movement, protect the internal organs, house the blood-cell formation system (red bone marrow) and hold about 99% of the calcium vital to many body processes. Bone consists of a matrix of crystals of calcium, chiefly the phosphate and carbonate, embedded among collagen fibres, providing strength and elasticity and bone cells (less than 5% of its volume). An external layer of compact bone surrounds a central area of spongy bone, except at the marrow cavity. Bone does not grow by cell division; instead, different types of bone cells generate bone matrix, break it down and maintain it. Bone is remodeled by this process, which strengthens it in areas under greatest stress, permits healing of fractures and helps regulate calcium levels in body fluid. The process also causes underutilized bone, as in an immobilized limb, to atrophy. Bone disorders include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, rickets, osteoporosis and tumours. Bone can fracture suddenly or over time, as in stress fractures.

12. rigid body tissue consisting of cells embedded in an abundant, hard intercellular material. The two principal components of this material, collagen and calcium phosphate, distinguish bone from such other hard tissues as chitin, enamel and shell. The functions of bone include structural support for the mechanical action of soft tissues, such as contraction of muscles, expansion of lungs; protection of soft parts, as by the brain case; provision of a protective site for specialized tissues such as the blood-forming system (bone marrow) and a mineral reservoir or sink, whereby endocrine systems regulate the level of calcium and phosphate in the circulating body fluids. rigid body tissue consisting of cells embedded in a hard intercellular matrix. Bone exists in vertebrates only. Bone has many functionsit serves as a structural frame to support the body; it enables movement by providing a point of attachment for the muscles and by serving as a system of levers; it protects the brain, spinal cord and the soft internal organs; it houses the blood-forming system (red bone marrow) and it acts as a reservoir for the mineral calcium, which is vital to many body processes. Additional reading F.C. McLean and M.R. Urist, Bone: Fundamentals of the Physiology of Skeletal Tissue, 3rd ed (1968), a comprehensive survey of bone structure and metabolic function; H.M. Frost (ed.), Bone Biodynamics (1964), a series of authoritative essays on topics of chemistry, structure, function and disease; W.H. Harris and R.P. Heaney, Skeletal Renewal and Metabolic Bone Disease (1970), a review of skeletal remodelling processes, with emphasis on their control mechanisms and on methods of measuring remodelling in the living skeleton; K. Rodahl, J.T. Nicholson and E.M. Brown, Bone as a Tissue (1960), a series of essays and reviews on topics of bone structure, physiology and disease and C.L. Comar and F. Bronner, Mineral Metabolism, vol. 1B, 2A and 3 (196069), exhaustive and definitive reviews of the chemistry and metabolism of the principal mineral components of bone.