Angielski-esperanto tłumaczenie alum słownik abnormal blood sugar

3. biotechnology common reference to potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate, a crystalline compound used in water purification, leather tanning, as an astringent, and in baking powder; it occurs in nature as the mineral kalunite; in medicine it is used to stop bleeding.

4. Inorganic compound, any of a class of hydrated double salts, usually consisting of aluminum sulfate, water of hydration (an essential part of the crystal makeup) and the sulfate of another element. The most important alums are those of potassium sulfate (potassium alum, or potash alum, K2SO4#00B7;Al2(SO4)3#00B7;24H2O), ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfate. Alums occur naturally in various minerals and can be prepared and purified by crystallization from their solutions. Most are white crystals with an astringent, acid taste.


They are used as paper-sizing agents, flocculating agents in water treatment, mordants in dyeing and in pickles, baking powder, fire extinguishers and medicines.

5. any of a group of hydrated double salts, usually consisting of aluminum sulfate, water of hydration and the sulfate of another element. A whole series of hydrated double salts results from the hydration of the sulfate of a univalent cation (e.g., potassium) and the sulfate of any one of a number of trivalent cations (e.g., aluminum). Aluminum sulfate can thus form alums with sulfates of the univalent cations of potassium, sodium, ammonium, cesium and other elements and compounds. In similar fashion, sulfates of the trivalent cations of iron, chromium, manganese, cobalt and other metals may take the place of aluminum sulfate. The most important alums are potassium sulfate, ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfate. Potassium sulfate, also known as potassium alum or potash alum, has a molecular formula of K2SO4Al2(SO4)324H2O or as KAl(SO4)212H2O. Alums can easily be produced by precipitation from an aqueous solution. In producing potassium alum, for example, aluminum sulfate and potassium sulfate are dissolved in water and then upon evaporation the alum crystallizes out of the solution. A more common production method is to treat bauxite with sulfuric acid and then with potassium sulfate. Ammonium alum is produced by the evaporation of a water solution containing ammonium sulfate and aluminum sulfate. It can also be obtained by treating a mixture of aluminum sulfate and sulfuric acid with ammonia. Alums occur naturally in various minerals. Potassium alum, for example, is found in the minerals kalinite, alunite and leucite, which can be treated with sulfuric acid to obtain crystals of the alum. Most alums have an astringent and acid taste. They are colourless, odourless and exist as a white crystalline powder. Alums are generally soluble in hot water and they can be readily precipitated from aqueous solutions to form large octahedral crystals. Alums have many uses, but they have been partly supplanted by aluminum sulfate itself, which is easily obtainable by treating bauxite ore with sulfuric acid. The commercial uses of alums mainly stem from the hydrolysis of the aluminum ions, which results in the precipitation of aluminum hydroxide. This chemical has various industrial uses. Paper is sized, for example, by depositing aluminum hydroxide in the interstices of the cellulose fibres. Aluminum hydroxide adsorbs suspended particles from water and is thus a useful flocculating agent in water-purification plants. When used as a mordant (binder) in dyeing, it fixes dye to cotton and other fabrics, rendering the dye insoluble. Alums are also used in pickling, in baking powder, in fire extinguishers and as astringents in medicine.

7. Alum is used as an ingredient in baking powder and is used to give crispness to pickles and maraschino cherries and to harden gelatin. Alum can be a dangerous substance when not used properly. Ingestion of 30 grams (1 ounce) has killed adults.Alum is legal to use in baking powders. In pickles and cherries,the amount usually left in the packaged product amounts to less than 0.2 percent. Alum is included in some fermented pickle recipes. Research shows that it has no effect until after the pickles have been fermented. Then it is used only in a soak solution. It should be washed off thoroughly before completing the recipe. Do NOT put alum in the final pickling liquid. Douche alum is not food grade. While alum may be safely used to firm fermented pickles, it is unnecessary and is not included in the USDA recipes for canning pickles.

8. Potassium aluminum sulfate, or ammonium aluminum sulfate, used especially as an emetic (i.e., an agent that induces vomiting), an astringent (i.e., a substance that contracts tissues), and a styptic (i.e., a substance that tends to check bleeding by contracting the tissues or blood vessels).