Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and the resistance of staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli to tea tree (melaleuca alternifolia) extract. – ppt download

Antimicrobial Activity of Plant Extracts and the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Extract Ashley Lim, Department of Biology, York College of Pennsylvania The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts are of interest due to the increase in demand for more natural food and medicine products, and because many microbes have been able to build up a resistance to current antibiotics. Staphylococcus bacteria pictures Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) is a natural antiseptic used in a wide variety of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products (Cox et al. Staphylococcus saprophyticus treatment 2000). Staphylococcus symptoms Much of the research done on plant extracts have concluded that the extracts studied have potential to be used as antimicrobial substances, yet little testing has been done to see if microbes can build up a resistance to these extracts.

Staphylococcus aureus prevention The antimicrobial activity of commercially available extracts were tested in this study and compared to the results seen in previous studies. Staphylococcus epidermidis shape Test the antimicrobial activity of tea tree, cypress, bergamot, vetiver, and eucalyptus radiata extracts using an agar and broth assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Define staphylococcus Test if Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli could build up a resistance to the tea tree extract. Causes of staphylococcus Disk Diffusion Assay Plates divided into quarters. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus treatment Inoculated with 100 µl microbe. Gram positive staphylococcus aureus 6 mm disk dipped into extracts (5-10 µl). Staphylococcus causes Blank disk used as negative control. Staphylococcus aureus images Penicillin and Kanamycin used as positive controls. How to treat staphylococcus Incubated 24 hrs at 30°C. Staphylococcus saprophyticus cause Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) measured in mm. Staphylococcus aureus sepsis Broth Dilution Assay 2-fold serial dilution in a 96-well plate. What causes staphylococcus Final concentrations ranged from 5% (v/v) to 0.01% (v/v). Staphylococcus aureus treatment and prevention 50 µl microbe inoculated into wells. Staphylococcus epidermidis morphology Incubated for 24 hrs at 30°C. Types of staphylococcus Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was found by assessing the turbidity of the wells. Staphylococcus epidermidis characteristics Resistance Assay Agar plates inoculated with 100 µl bacteria. Staphylococcus epidermidis infections 6 mm disk inoculated with 5 µl tea tree extract. Define staphylococcus aureus Incubated for 24 hrs at 30°C. Staphylococcus aureus mrsa ZOI was measured, then the most resistant bacteria was isolated. Staphylococcus aureus gram negative “Resistant” bacteria used to inoculate subsequent rounds (n=11). Morphology of staphylococcus aureus Mean ZOI measurements were statistically analyzed with a paired t-test. Prevention of staphylococcus aureus Tea tree had the largest ZOI of all the extracts. Diseases caused by staphylococcus aureus Bergamot and cypress showed no antimicrobial effect on E. Staphylococcus pneumoniae coli during the disk diffusion assay. How to prevent staphylococcus aureus Only 3 extracts had MIC below 5% (v/v). Antibiotics for staphylococcus aureus Resistance Assay showed a lot of variability between rounds, but no change in resistance was observed. Staphylococcus aureus treatment natural Commercial plant extracts of tea tree, cypress, bergamot, vetiver, and Eucalyptus radiata show antimicrobial activity and show potential for use in natural antimicrobial products. What are the symptoms of staphylococcus aureus A universal methodology is needed for this area of research to check the efficacy of antimicrobial activity in some extracts. Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning S. Staphylococcus saprophyticus uti aureus and E. Staphylococcus virus coli did not show any indication of being able to build up a resistance to the tea tree extract. Staphylococcus aureus gram positive Plant extracts combined with other plant extracts or antibiotics have showed synergistic effects that increased antimicrobial activity (Nanasombat and Wimuttigosol 2011, D’Arrigo et al. Staphylococcus aureus causes 2010). Staphylococcus aureus characteristics Future experiments can be done to test the synergistic effects of tea tree extract combined with Eucalyptus radiata extract. Staphylococcus epidermidis hemolysis Introduction Objectives Methods Results Conclusion Future Studies Acknowledgment I’d like to thank Dr. Symptoms of staphylococcus aureus Singleton for all the help and advice he provided throughout this experiment. What is staphylococcus epidermidis I’d also like to thank Dr. Staphylococcus aureus symptoms Kleiner for providing a protocol I could use on the Resistance Assay. Staphylococcus epidermidis treatment Literature Cited