Cervical cancer _ monograph

Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Endometrial biopsy results interpretation Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which cells that are not normal begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Endometrial biopsy results Later, cancer cells start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas.


Bleeding after endometrial biopsy Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for development of cervical cancer. What is endometrial biopsy Infection of the cervix with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Endometrial biopsy results how long Not all women with HPV infection, however, will develop cervical cancer. What is an endometrial biopsy Women who do not regularly have a Pap smear to detect HPV or abnormal cells in the cervix are at increased risk of cervical cancer.

The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the cervix or to other parts of the body is called staging. Biopsy endometrial The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. Skin biopsy results time It is important to know the stage in order to plan the best treatment. Pipelle endometrial biopsy The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:

• CT scan (CAT scan): A CT scan creates a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. Endometrial biopsy procedure The pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. Endometrial biopsy side effects This test is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.

• Lymphangiography: An x-ray is made of the lymph system. Liver biopsy recovery time A dye is injected into a lymph vessel and travels through the lymph system. Abnormal endometrial biopsy results The dye outlines the lymph vessels and organs on the x-ray. Endometrial biopsy recovery This test helps determine whether cancer has spread to the lymph nodes.

• Pretreatment surgical staging: Surgery (an operation) is done to find out if the cancer has spread within the cervix or to other parts of the body. Endometrial biopsy video In some cases, the cervical cancer can be removed at the same time. Pain after endometrial biopsy Pretreatment surgical staging is usually done only as part of a clinical trial.

• MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure in which a magnet linked to a computer is used to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body. Cervical biopsy recovery This test is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).

In stage 0, the cancer is found in the first layer of cells lining the cervix only and has not invaded the deeper tissues of the cervix. Endometrial biopsy complications Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

• Stage IA: A very small amount of cancer that can only be seen with a microscope is found in the tissues of the cervix. Hysteroscopy endometrial biopsy The cancer is not deeper than 5 millimeters (less than o inch) and not wider than 7 millimeters (about o inch).

In stage II, cancer has spread beyond the cervix but not to the pelvic wall (the tissues that line the part of the body between the hips). Breast biopsy recovery time Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, based on how far the cancer has spread from the cervix into nearby tissue.

In stage III, cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina and may have spread to the pelvic wall and nearby lymph nodes. Endometrial biopsy ivf Stage III is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB, based on how far the cancer has spread.

• Stage IIIB: Cancer cells have spread to the pelvic wall and/or the tumor has become large enough to block the ureters (the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder). Endometrial biopsy pain This blockage can cause the kidneys to enlarge or stop working. Breast biopsy recovery Cancer cells may also have spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis.

In stage IV, cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum, or other parts of the body. Endometrial biopsy results time frame Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB, based on where the cancer is found.

Recurrent cervical cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. Endometrial biopsy results interpretation The cancer may come back in the cervix or in other parts of the body.

Different types of treatment are available for patients with cervical cancer. Endometrial biopsy results Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. Bleeding after endometrial biopsy Before starting treatment, patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. What is endometrial biopsy A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. Endometrial biopsy results how long When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.

Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. What is an endometrial biopsy Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Cancer.gov Web site. Biopsy endometrial Choosing the most appropriate cancer treatment is a decision that ideally involves the patient, family, and health care team.

• Hysterectomy: The uterus and cervix are removed in a hysterectomy. Skin biopsy results time If the uterus is taken out through the vagina, the operation is called a vaginal hysterectomy. Pipelle endometrial biopsy If the uterus is taken out through an incision (cut) in the abdomen, the operation is called a total abdominal hysterectomy.

• Pelvic exenteration: If the cancer has spread throughout the pelvis, then the lower colon, rectum, or bladder (depending on where the cancer has spread) may be removed along with the cervix, uterus, and vagina. Endometrial biopsy procedure Plastic surgery may be needed to make an artificial vagina after this operation.

• Cryosurgery: An instrument is used to freeze and destroy the abnormal tissue. Endometrial biopsy side effects This procedure is also called cryotherapy. Liver biopsy recovery time Carcinoma in situ may be treated with cryosurgery.

• Laser surgery : A laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) is used as a knife to remove the cancer. Abnormal endometrial biopsy results A laser beam can also be used to kill the cancer cells. Endometrial biopsy recovery This may be called laser therapy.

Radiation therapy is the use of x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Endometrial biopsy video Radiation therapy may use external radiation (using a machine outside the body) or internal radiation. Pain after endometrial biopsy Internal radiation involves putting radioisotopes (materials that produce radiation) through thin plastic tubes into the area where cancer cells are found. Cervical biopsy recovery Both external and internal radiation are used for cervical cancer.

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Endometrial biopsy complications Chemotherapy may be taken by mouth, or it may be put into the body by inserting a needle into a vein or muscle. Hysteroscopy endometrial biopsy Either type of chemotherapy is called systemic treatment because the drugs enter the bloodstream, travel through the body, and can kill cancer cells throughout the body.

This summary section refers to specific treatments under study in clinical trials, but it may not mention every new treatment being studied. Breast biopsy recovery time Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Cancer.gov Web site.

This summary section refers to specific treatments under study in clinical trials, but it may not mention every new treatment being studied. Endometrial biopsy ivf Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Cancer.gov Web site.

This summary section refers to specific treatments under study in clinical trials, but it may not mention every new treatment being studied. Endometrial biopsy pain Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Cancer.gov Web site.

This summary section refers to specific treatments under study in clinical trials, but it may not mention every new treatment being studied. Breast biopsy recovery Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Cancer.gov Web site.