Colon cancer symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment antiemetics definition

• Neuroendocrine tumors account for around four percent of colorectal cancers These tumors arise in nervous system tissues.and are broken down into two categories: aggressive neuroendocrine tumors which tend to spread quickly and have a poor prognosis and indolent neuroendocrine tumors which are slower and less invasive.

• Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) start from specialized cells in the colon called the interstitial cells of Cajal. They can be found anywhere in the digestive tract but are less common in the colon. Some of these tumors are cancerous whereas others are benign.

Keep in mind that some people experience no symptoms in the early stage of colon cancer. In addition, the signs and symptoms mentioned below may be (and usually are) due to a non-cancerous medical condition, like an infection or hemorrhoids; seeing your doctor, though, is the only way to know for sure.

Another risk factor for colon cancer is inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis). More specifically, having active inflammatory bowel disease in the colon for a long time can increase this risk. The majority of people with IBD, however, will never develop colon cancer. Diagnosis

If colon cancer is suspected with a screening test, a person will then undergo a diagnostic colonoscopy and biopsy. With a biopsy, a gastroenterologist (the doctor performing the colonoscopy) removes a piece of tissue from the suspicious mass. Then, a different doctor (called a pathologist) examines the tissue sample under a microscope to look for cancer cells.

The stage of the cancer, or how far it has grown, is the most important factor in determining treatment. For colon cancers that have not metastasized or spread to distant sites in the body (for example, the liver), surgery is the primary treatment. Surgery often entails removing the cancerous polyp during a colonoscopy (called a polypectomy). Sometimes part of the colon needs to be removed to treat colon cancer (called a partial colectomy). Rarely, the whole colon is removed (called a total colectomy).

After surgery, a systemic or whole-body therapy, called chemotherapy is often used to kill any microscopic cancer cells. Sometimes other systemic therapies are used, either alone or in addition to chemotherapy. These therapies include immunotherapy, which uses a person’s own immune system to attack the cancer, as well as targeted drugs, which target specific proteins that help cancers grow. A Word From Verywell

Colon cancer is a difficult disease to wrap one’s head around—it’s diagnosis, staging, and treatment is often complex and intensive. The good news, though, is that the rates of colon cancer are declining as more people who are at risk for it are getting screened. Moreover, with the improvements in screening and available treatments, the survival rates of colon cancer are increasing.

Lastly, experts are discovering more and more ways for people to prevent colon cancer in the first place. Some of these simple strategies include eating more calcium and less red meat, exercising, losing weight if overweight or obese, and taking a cholesterol medication (called a statin).