Ebola 101 answers to your questions about causes, symptoms, transmission and treatments chest pain medication

The fever is caused by an infection with one of five known Ebola virus species: Zaire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Ta- Forest ebolavirus (formerly C-te d’Ivoire ebolavirus) and Reston ebolavirus. Four of the strains can cause severe illness in humans and animals. The fifth, Reston virus, has caused illness in some animals, but not in humans.

Symptoms of Ebola typically include weakness, fever, aches, diarrhea, vomiting and stomach pain, which are common enough to be thought of as flu or malaria at first. Some patients also experience a rash around the face, neck, trunk, and arms usually appearing by day five or seven, red eyes, chest pain, throat soreness, difficulty breathing or swallowing and bleeding (including internal). Usually, massive hemorrhage, especially in the gastrointestinal system, occurs only in fatal cases.


Scientists say Ebola is extremely infectious but not extremely contagious. Because an infinitesimally small amount of the virus can cause illness, it is considered extremely infectious. However, because the virus is not transmitted through the air, it is considered moderately contagious.

Humans can be infected by other humans if they come into contact with body fluids such as blood, urine and tears from an infected person or contaminated objects from an infected person. Unprotected health care workers are susceptible to infection because of their close contact with patients during treatment.

Ebola is not transmissible if someone is asymptomatic and usually not after someone has recovered from it. However, the virus has been found in semen for up to three months, and possibly is transmitted from contact with that semen, according to the CDC.

Researchers believe the most likely natural hosts are fruit bats, though the exact reservoir of Ebola viruses is still unknown. In addition to fruit bats, other animals that have been known to become infected with the virus are chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines.

The average case fatality rate for Ebola virus disease is about 50%, though this rate has varied from 25% to 90% during past outbreaks. A patient’s chance of survival depends, in part, on the particular subtype of ebolavirus and access to care.

In the early stages, diagnosis is difficult since Ebola can be difficult to distinguish from malaria, typhoid fever, meningitis, yellow fever and other infectious diseases. A preliminary diagnosis may be based on symptoms combined with travel and exposure history, but a positive laboratory blood test is needed as confirmation.

The methods used to treat Ebola patients include quarantine and early care using oral or intravenous fluids for rehydration, according to the WHO. While no licensed treatments have been proven capable of neutralizing the virus, a range of therapies are under development, including immune therapies and drug therapies.

Dr. Daniel R. Lucey, a spokesman for the Infectious Diseases Society of America and an adjunct professor of medicine-infectious diseases at Georgetown University Medical Center, explained that ZMapp, an immune-based antibody treatment that can be given to people who are already sick with Ebola, is one such experimental treatment.

Lucey said that there are quite a few experimental vaccines, both from the West and from China and from Russia, yet only one investigational Ebola vaccine is being used in the current outbreak — recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus (or rVSV-ZEBOV), made by pharmaceutical giant Merck.

According to WHO, the experimental Ebola vaccine proved highly protective against the deadly virus during a study conducted in Guinea during the 2013-2015 outbreak in West Africa. Among the nearly 6,000 people who received the vaccine at that time, no Ebola cases were recorded 10 days or more after vaccination.

The fever is caused by an infection with one of five known Ebola virus species: Zaire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Ta- Forest ebolavirus (formerly C-te d’Ivoire ebolavirus) and Reston ebolavirus. Four of the strains can cause severe illness in humans and animals. The fifth, Reston virus, has caused illness in some animals, but not in humans.

Symptoms of Ebola typically include weakness, fever, aches, diarrhea, vomiting and stomach pain, which are common enough to be thought of as flu or malaria at first. Some patients also experience a rash around the face, neck, trunk, and arms usually appearing by day five or seven, red eyes, chest pain, throat soreness, difficulty breathing or swallowing and bleeding (including internal). Usually, massive hemorrhage, especially in the gastrointestinal system, occurs only in fatal cases.

Scientists say Ebola is extremely infectious but not extremely contagious. Because an infinitesimally small amount of the virus can cause illness, it is considered extremely infectious. However, because the virus is not transmitted through the air, it is considered moderately contagious.

Humans can be infected by other humans if they come into contact with body fluids such as blood, urine and tears from an infected person or contaminated objects from an infected person. Unprotected health care workers are susceptible to infection because of their close contact with patients during treatment.

Ebola is not transmissible if someone is asymptomatic and usually not after someone has recovered from it. However, the virus has been found in semen for up to three months, and possibly is transmitted from contact with that semen, according to the CDC.

Researchers believe the most likely natural hosts are fruit bats, though the exact reservoir of Ebola viruses is still unknown. In addition to fruit bats, other animals that have been known to become infected with the virus are chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines.

The average case fatality rate for Ebola virus disease is about 50%, though this rate has varied from 25% to 90% during past outbreaks. A patient’s chance of survival depends, in part, on the particular subtype of ebolavirus and access to care.

In the early stages, diagnosis is difficult since Ebola can be difficult to distinguish from malaria, typhoid fever, meningitis, yellow fever and other infectious diseases. A preliminary diagnosis may be based on symptoms combined with travel and exposure history, but a positive laboratory blood test is needed as confirmation.

The methods used to treat Ebola patients include quarantine and early care using oral or intravenous fluids for rehydration, according to the WHO. While no licensed treatments have been proven capable of neutralizing the virus, a range of therapies are under development, including immune therapies and drug therapies.

Dr. Daniel R. Lucey, a spokesman for the Infectious Diseases Society of America and an adjunct professor of medicine-infectious diseases at Georgetown University Medical Center, explained that ZMapp, an immune-based antibody treatment that can be given to people who are already sick with Ebola, is one such experimental treatment.

Lucey said that there are quite a few experimental vaccines, both from the West and from China and from Russia, yet only one investigational Ebola vaccine is being used in the current outbreak — recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus (or rVSV-ZEBOV), made by pharmaceutical giant Merck.

According to WHO, the experimental Ebola vaccine proved highly protective against the deadly virus during a study conducted in Guinea during the 2013-2015 outbreak in West Africa. Among the nearly 6,000 people who received the vaccine at that time, no Ebola cases were recorded 10 days or more after vaccination.