George metesky american terrorist britannica.com staphylococcus causes

George Metesky, also known as “the Mad Bomber”, (born November 2, 1903, Connecticut, U.S.—died May 23, 1994, Waterbury, Connecticut), American terrorist known for having planted at least 33 bombs throughout New York City during the 1940s and ’50s. The 16-year hunt for the Mad Bomber was solved by using one of the first applications of criminal profiling.

Metesky was the son of Lithuanian immigrants. He was injured in an industrial accident in 1931 in which a boiler backfired at the United Industrial Light and Power Company, a subsidiary of Consolidated Edison. As a result of the scalding boiler fumes he inhaled, he was disabled for 26 weeks, and he was then terminated by Consolidated Edison. Although Metesky filed a worker’s compensation claim stating that the accident had led to pneumonia that progressed to tuberculosis, his claim was denied ostensibly because he had waited too long to file.


His three appeals were likewise denied. Unemployed and living with his sisters, Metesky developed an intense and paranoid hatred for Consolidated Edison. His first bomb was found on November 16, 1940, on a window ledge of the Consolidated Edison building in New York City. The small crudely made pipe bomb never exploded and had a note on the outside that read, “Con Edison crooks, this is for you!” Police believed that the note’s placement suggested that it was never intended to detonate. After a cursory investigation of disgruntled employees and other possible suspects, the police dropped the case.

Nearly a year later, in September 1941, another unexploded bomb was found on 19th Street, a few blocks from the Consolidated Edison office at Irving Plaza. The bomb, which was similar in construction to the November 1940 bomb, was found in an old sock, with no note. The following December, shortly after the Pearl Harbor attack, Metesky sent a letter bearing the same block-style handwriting of the initial note to police headquarters. In it Metesky claimed that he would stop his activities for the duration of World War II and wrote, “I will bring the Con Edison to justice. They will pay for their dastardly deeds.” The letter was signed, “F.P.”

Though his threatening letters continued to plague Consolidated Edison and the police, Metesky did not set another bomb until March 29, 1950, when a third hoax bomb was discovered in Grand Central Station. The following month a bomb exploded in a phone booth inside the New York Public Library, followed by another bomb at Grand Central Station. Over the next five years, Metesky planted nearly 30 more bombs throughout New York—at locations such as Penn Station, the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the Brooklyn Paramount Theatre (now Arnold and Marie Schwartz Athletic Center), and Radio City Music Hall, as well as in various phone booths—nearly half of which exploded, ultimately causing more than a dozen injuries but no deaths.

Frustrated after 16 years of investigation, Inspector Howard Finney of the New York City Police’s crime lab turned to James A. Brussel, a private psychiatrist who had performed counterintelligence profiling work during World War II and the Korean War. Brussel developed an elaborate profile in December 1956 and predicted that the Mad Bomber was (1) a foreign-born male of eastern European descent; (2) between 40 and 50 years of age; (3) a bachelor living with female relatives; (4) a clean-shaven, neatly dressed man with an athletic build; and (5) a textbook paranoid. Most famously, Brussel also predicted that the bomber would be wearing a buttoned double-breasted suit. Brussel urged the police to widely publish that profile to draw out the bomber and told Consolidated Edison to search their files for former employees matching that discription.

After local newspapers published summaries of the Mad Bomber’s profile, police were inundated with false leads. Meanwhile, Consolidated Edison expanded its search of personnel files for disgruntled employees matching the profile. They soon found Metesky’s file, and the police went to his house in Connecticut for routine questioning on January 21, 1957. To their amazement, Metesky fit Brussel’s profile in almost every detail and immediately confessed to planting the bombs, revealing that “F.P.” stood for “fair play.” Although he was not wearing a double-breasted suit when the police arrived, Metesky asked to change before his arrest and donned a suit matching the profile. Metesky was arrested, and four months later the judge declared him to be a paranoid schizophrenic and legally insane. Incompetent to stand trial, Metesky was committed to the Matteawan Asylum for the Criminally Insane. Upon his release in 1973, he moved home to Connecticut, where he remained until his death in 1994. Laura Lambert