Hypercalcemia of malignancy causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment medguidance blood cancer diagnosis

Your bones are mostly made of calcium, but 1% of your body’s calcium is in the blood. Calcium helps your body form bones and promotes normal nerve, muscle, and brain function. Your body regulates the level of calcium in many different ways. Kidneys and parathyroid hormone play a big role in this. The parathyroid gland releases parathyroid hormone, and the kidneys work to expel excess calcium out of your blood.

The reference range of calcium in blood varies among laboratories, but is generally within 8.7-10.4 mg/dL. The levels are a bit higher in children. About 50% of calcium binds itself to protein (albumin), whereas the remaining is ionized and is found in physiologic active form. Due to certain reasons, some people have more calcium in their blood than normal. This is called hypercalcemia, which may have life-threatening consequences, especially when it happens due to hypercalcemia of malignancy.

What Causes Hypercalcemia?

Up to 20% of patients with malignancies develop hypercalcemia at some stage, which makes malignancy the most common cause of hypercalcemia. The risks are higher with certain types of cancers, such as squamous cell head and neck cancers, squamous cell lung, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, renal cell cancer, t-cell lymphomas, and ovarian cancer. Other Causes of Hypercalcemia

• Immobility: People with cancer or those suffering from another disease that causes them to spend more time on bed may lead to the development of hypercalcemia. Bones will also release more calcium into the blood when they stop bearing weight.

Hypercalcemia of malignancy may indicate the spread of cancer to bones in the body – this works through a process called metastasis. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. Sometimes, cancer spreads to bones from the adjacent cancer, which results in injury to the bone tissue.

Bone may appear static, but it is actually very dynamic and remodels itself constantly. Humans recycle up to 7% of their bone mass every week. Bone remodeling also regulates blood calcium levels. Only 1% of the calcium in the body is reserved for several processes such as nerve function, contraction of muscles, cell division, and blood clotting. The rest of it is in the bones. Bones release calcium when there is a shortage of calcium in the blood. Hypercalcemia of malignancy disturbs this balance and makes bones to release more calcium into the bloodstream. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Hypercalcemia?

The condition develops very slowly and there are no real symptoms in the beginning. Some patients may experience more symptoms early, while others may not until it becomes worse. Some of the most common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, headaches, fatigue, increased thirst, frequent urination, constipation, and depression. Sever hypercalcemia may produce symptoms such as irregular heartbeat, coma, loss of consciousness, kidney stones, and heart attack. How Is Hypercalcemia Diagnosed?

A blood test confirms if a person has hypercalcemia. The test checks blood calcium levels. The levels are considered normal if the result is between 8.5 and 10.5mg per deciliter. Tests may be repeated a couple of times to confirm elevated calcium levels. How Is Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Treated?

• Hydration: Increasing oral fluid intake is one of many ways to treat hypercalcemia. Some cases require intravenous administration of fluids. Fluids dilute the concentration of calcium and helps your body eliminate excess calcium through urine.

• Bisphosphonates: The use of bisphosphonate drugs helps prevent loss of bone that may happen in case of metastatic lesions. This decreases pain and reduces the risk of fractures. These drugs inhibit bone breakdown to lower the levels of calcium in the blood.