I nfectious disease of r eproductive system. s yphilis causative agent_ treponema pallidum transmitted from sexual intercourse and from mother to fetus. – ppt download

S YPHILIS Causative agent: Treponema pallidum Transmitted from sexual intercourse and from mother to fetus. Trichomonas vaginalis images Morphology of the organism: Spirochete,G-ve, tightly coiled helix, thin, length is no more than 20μm.

P ATHOGENESIS OF S YPHILIS Primary stage of syphilis In the primary stage of the disease, the initial sign is a small, hardbased chancre, or sore, which appears at the site of infection 10 to 90 days following exposure- on average, about 3 weeks. Whats trichomoniasis The chancre is painless, and an exudate of serum forms in the center.


Trichomoniasis symptoms in males This fluid is highly infectious, and examination with a darkfield microscope shows many spirochetes. Trichomonas vaginalis pdf In a couple of weeks, this lesion disappears. Symptoms for trichomoniasis In men, the chancre sometimes forms in the urethra and is not visible. What is trichomoniasis caused by During this stage, bacteria enter the bloodstream and lymphatic system, which distribute them widely in the body (eyes,mucus membrane, joints, bones).

S ECONDARY STAGE OF S YPHILIS Several weeks after the primary stage (the exact length of time varies and may overlap), the disease enters the secondary stage, characterized mainly by skin rashes of varying appearance. Trichomoniasis discharge pictures The rash is widely distributed on the skin and mucous membranes. Trichomoniasis in women The damage done to tissues at this stage and the later tertiary stage is caused by an inflammatory response to circulating immune complexes that lodge at various body sites. Signs of trichomoniasis Other symptoms often observed are the loss of patches of hair, malaise, and mild fever. What is trichomonas vaginalis At this stage, the lesions of the rash contain many spirochetes and are very infectious. How can you catch trichomoniasis Transmission from sexual contact occurs during the primary and secondary stages.

L ATENT P ERIOD The symptoms of secondary syphilis usually subside after a few weeks, and the disease enters a latent period. Trichomoniasis cdc During this period, there are no symptoms. Trichomonas vaginalis treatment After 2 to 4 years of latency, the disease is not normally infectious, except for transmission from mother to fetus. Symptoms of trichomoniasis in males The majority of cases do not progress beyond the latent stage, even without treatment.

T ERTIARY STAGE OF S YPHILIS Because the symptoms of primary and secondary syphilis are not disabling, people may enter the latent period without having received medical attention. Symptoms trichomoniasis In up to 25% of untreated cases, the disease reappears in a tertiary stage. Trichomoniasis symptoms in men This stage occurs only after an interval of many years from the onset of the latent phase. What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis in males T. How to treat trichomoniasis pallidum has an outer layer of lipids that stimulates little effective immune response, especially from cell-destroying complement reactions. How is trichomoniasis treated This is the most important stage because,it cause generalized paralysis or other serious neurological damage.

T ERTIARY STAGE OF S YPHILIS Tertiary, or late-stage, syphilis can be classified generally by affected tissues or type of lesion. Trichomoniasis images Gummatous syphilis is characterized by gummas, which are a form of progressive inflammation that appear as rubbery masses of tissue in various organs (most commonly the skin, mucous membranes, and bones) after about 15 years. Can trichomoniasis come back There they cause local destruction of these tissues but usually not incapacitation or death. Signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis Neurosyphilis occurs in up to 10% of patients if the disease is untreated. Can trichomoniasis be cured As parts of the central nervous system are affected, the result can be widely varying signs and symptoms. Sti trichomoniasis The patient can suffer from personality changes and other signs of dementia (paresis), loss of coordination of voluntary movement, partial paralysis, loss of ability to use or comprehend speech, loss of sight or hearing, or loss of bowel and bladder control.

C ONGENITAL SYPHILIS One of the most distressing and dangerous forms of syphilis, called congenital syphilis, is transmitted across the placenta to the unborn fetus. Is trichomoniasis an std Damage to mental development and other neurological symptoms are among the more serious consequences. How is trichomoniasis tested This type of infection is most common when pregnancy occurs during the latent period of the disease. Causes of trichomoniasis A pregnancy during the primary or secondary stage is likely to produce a stillbirth. How do you test for trichomoniasis Treating the mother with antibiotics during the first two trimesters (6 months) will usually prevent congenital transmission.

G ONORRHEA Causative agent: Neisseria gonorrhoeae Morphological and cultural characteristics:  Aerobic  Gram-negative cocci often arranged in pairs (diplococci) with adjacent sides flattened (like coffee beans)  Fastidious Grow best in moist atmosphere supplemented with CO 2  Oxidase positive  Most catalase positive  Nonmotile  Acid from oxidation of carbohydrates, not from fermentation

C LINICAL MANIFESTATION : painful urination and a discharge of pus- containing material from the urethra. Trichomoniasis sores About 80% of infected men show these obvious symptoms after an incubation period of only a few days; most others show symptoms in less than a week. Std trichomoniasis In women, the disease is more insidious. Trichomoniasis pics Only the cervix, which contains columnar epithelial cells, is infected. Trichomonas infection Very few women are aware of the infection.

C LINICAL MANIFESTATION : In both men and women, untreated gonorrhea can disseminate and become a serious, systemic infection. Symptoms of trichomonas infection Complications of gonorrhea can involve the joints, heart (gonorrheal endocarditis), meninges (gonorrheal meningitis), eyes, pharynx, or other parts of the body. How do you treat trichomoniasis Gonorrheal arthritis, which is caused by the growth of the gonococcus in fluids in joints, occurs in about I % of gonorrhea cases. What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis If the mother is infected with gonorrhea, the eyes of the infant can become infected as it passes through the birth canal. Is trichomoniasis a bacterial infection This condition, ophthalmia neonatorum, can result in blindness.

P ATHOGENESIS To infect, the gonococcus must attach to the mucosal cells of the epithelial wall by means of fimbriae. Trichomoniasis symptoms men The pathogen invades the spaces separating columnar epithelial cells. Symptoms of trichomoniasis The invasion sets up an inflammation and, when leukocytes move into the inflamed area, the characteristic pus forms. How do u get trichomoniasis In men, a single unprotected exposure results in infection with gonorrhea 20-35% of the time. Antibiotics for trichomoniasis and chlamydia Women become infected % of the time from a single exposure.

 Fimbriated cells attach to intact mucus membrane epithelium  Capacity to invade intact mucus membranes or skin with abrasions Adherence to mucosal epithelium Penetration into and multiplication before passing through mucosal epithelial cells Establish infection in the sub-epithelial layer  Most common sites of inoculation: Cervix (cervicitis) or vagina in the female Urethra (urethritis) or penis in the male

 Antiphagocytic capsule-like negative surface charge  Only fimbriated (piliated) cells are virulent. Is trichomoniasis curable  Outer membrane proteins (formerly Proteins I, II, & III) Por (porin protein) prevents phagolysosome fusion following phagocytosis and thereby promotes intracellular survival Opa (opacity protein) mediates firm attachment to epithelial cells and subsequent invasion into cells Rmp (reduction-modifiable protein) protects other surface antigens from bactericidal antibodies (Por protein, LOS)  Acquisition of iron, mediated through Tbp 1 and Tbp 2 (transferrin-binding proteins), Lbp (lactoferrin binding protein) & Hbp (hemoglobin-binding protein) Gonococcal Virulence Factors

 Llipooligosaccharide (LOS) (Lipid A plus core polysaccharide) has endotoxin activity. Symptoms of trichomoniasis in females  IgA 1 protease  Acquisition in last two decades of two types of antibiotic resistance: Plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase production Chromosomally-mediated changes in cellular permeability inhibit entry of penicillins, tetracycline, erythromycin, aminoglycosides Gonococcal Virulence Factors (cont.)

HIV-AIDS HIV, of the genus Lentivirus, is a retrovirus. Trichomoniasis male symptoms It has two identical strands of RNA, the enzyme reverse transcriptase, and an envelope of phospholipid. Male symptoms of trichomoniasis The envelope has glycoprotein spikes termed gpl20 (the notation for a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 120,000).

V IRAL DISEASE -AIDS Pathogenesis: Helper T cells are the primary hosts for HIV. Trichomoniasis statistics gp 120 attachment spikes on the viral envelope attached to CD4 receptors on host cells. What treats trichomoniasis The virus evades the host defenses by latency and being spread by cell to cell contact rather to lysis.

To be infective, HIV must go through the steps of attachment, fusion, and entry. Definition of trichomoniasis Attachment to the target cell depends on the glycoprotein spike (gp 120 ) combining with the CD4 + receptor. Infection trichomoniasis Approximately 65,000 of these receptors are found on each CD4 + T helper cell, which is the main target of HIV infection. What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis in females Certain coreceptors are also required. Infection trichomonas The two best-known chemokine coreceptors are named CCR5 and CXCR4·. Can you get trichomoniasis from kissing Macrophages and monocytes also carry CD4 moleculcs.

T HE I NFECTIVENESS AND P ATHOGENICITY OF HIV In the host cell, viral RNA is released and transcribed into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. How does trichomoniasis start This viral DNA then becomes integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell. How long does it take to cure trichomoniasis The DNA may control the production of an active infection in which new viruses bud from the host cell. Can trichomoniasis be transmitted orally Alternatively, this integrated DNA may not produce new HIV but remains hidden in the host cell’s chromosome as a provirus. Other ways to get trichomoniasis HIV produced by a host cell is not necessarily released from the cell but may remain as latent virions in vacuoles within the cell. Can you get trichomoniasis in the mouth In fact, a subset of the HIV-infected cells, instead of being killed, become long-lived memory T cells in which the reservoir of latent HIV can persist for decades. How is trichomoniasis contracted This ability of the virus to remain as a provirus or latent virus within host cells shelters it from the immune system. Ways to contract trichomoniasis Another way HIV evades the immune system is cell-cell fusion, by which the virus moves from an infected cell to an adjacent uninfected cell.

T HE I NFECTIVENESS AND P ATHOGENICITY OF HIV The virus also evades immune defenses by undergoing rapid antigenic changes. Chlamydia trichomonas Retroviruses, with the reverse transcriptase enzyme step, have a high mutation rate compared to DNA viruses. Trichomoniasis signs and symptoms They also lack the corrective “proofreading” capacity of DNA viruses. How can you get trichomoniasis if no one cheats As a result, a mutation is probably introduced at every position in the HIV genome many times each day in an infected person. Trichomoniasis yeast infection This may amount to an accumulation of I million variants of the virus in an asymptomatic person and 100 million variants during the final stages of the infection. Can you get trichomoniasis in your mouth These dramatic number illustrate the potential problems of drug resistance and obstacles to the development of vaccines and diagnostic tests.