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Fundamentals for safety: Five “E’s” – Education, Engineering, Enforcement, Enthusiasm, Example setting Five “L’s” – Learning, Leadership, Loyality, Labour protection, and Lawfulness. Five “M’s” – Man, Machine, Materials, Money and Management Five “P’s” – People, Protection, Productivity, Prosperity and Proficiency. Following figures were published in Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct-Dec, 1996, as ILO data for Construction Sector: Country

To compare with this, Accident Rates for the year 1992 and 1993, given by construction Wing of NPC, India are reported as 10.05 and 12.06 respectively. This indicates that our construction accidents are 5 to 14 times less than those of foreign (developed) countries. Similarly Fatality Rates for 1992 and 1993, given by the same NPC, India are 0.124 and 0.120 respectively and again these figures when compared with ILO figures, indicate that Fatal construction accidents in our country are 75 to 320 times less than those in western countries.

The reasons of this anomaly, as stated in the article are as under: 1.Gross under-reporting of accidents by Indian industry. 2.ILO figures include first aid injuries while ours are reportable accidents. 3.ILO figures are told when safety efforts in western countries were poor. Parameters governing safety in construction: Planning and layout- 1.Set goals

Parameters governing safety in construction: Safe access, good housekeeping- Rule 126: “The employer shall ensure at a construction site of a building or other construction work that ladders, stair cases or ramps are provided, as the case may be, for safe access to and egress from excavation where the Depth of such excavation exceeds one point five meters and such ladders, stair cases or ramps comply with the relevant national standards.” 1.Create safe access for everyone to reach their places of work

Housekeeping: Housekeeping means keeping everything at work in its proper place and putting things away after they are used. Tools materials should never be left on the floor, on stairs, in walkways, or aisles. During the course of construction, alteration, or repairs, form and scrap lumber, with protruding nails, and all other debris are to be kept cleared from work areas, passageways, and stairs, in and around buildings or other Structures. Containers are to be provided for the collection and separation of waste, trash, oily and used rags, and other refuse. Garbage and other waste must be disposed of at frequent and regular intervals. Safety in use of construction machinery: Common machineries used at construction site: Construction Equipment: 1.Scrapers 2. Graders 3. Bulldozers 4. End-loaders 5.Drills 6. Cranes 7. Trucks 8. Ditch Witches 9.Derricks 10. Backhoes 11. Forklifts 12. Helicopters 13.Pumps 14. Generators 15. Ventilation fans 16. Ladders Construction Tools: 1.Radial saws 2. Table saws 3. Drills 4. Chippers 5.Grinders 6. Powder-actuated guns 7. Lathes 8.Planners 9. Riveters 10. Sanders 11. Hammers 12.Crowbars 13. Chisels 14. Screwdrivers 15. Axes 16.Shovels 17. Tin snips 18. Pliers 19. Knives

Seismic structural soundness and structural safety: Rule 49: Stability of structures- “ The employer shall ensure that no wall, chimney or other structure or part of a structure is left unguarded in such condition that it may fall, collapse or weaken due to wind pressure, vibration or due to any other reason at a site of a building or other construction work.” The employer shall ensure at a construction site of a building or other construction work that- I.Stability of any structure should be protected by underpinning, sheet piling, shoring, bracing, or other similar means to support such structure.

excavation machinery or material or article used in such excavation. Accident and Hazards: In order for work to progress in the workplace, certain components must interact. These Components are people(workers), equipment(machines), and supplies(materials). These Three interacting components use established procedures(methods) to accomplish the job (task). When these components interact according to planned methods, the result will most likely be efficient or safe production. However, at some point, something unplanned may happen. This usually results from a change in the workers, machines, and material interaction. This change causes deviation from normal procedure and the result may be an accident /incident. To prevent this incident, it is necessary to identify the exact point(s) where change from normal procedures occurred. It is well recognised that the construction industry is one of the more dangerous industries to work in. The reasons for these dangers are the hazards faced by those in the construction industry. Many of these hazards are caused by the equipment used on construction worksites. Potential Construction Hazards: Potential Construction Hazards : 1.premature explosions 2. hand/arm vibration 3.rollover 4. moving of heavy equipment 5.electrocution 6. concrete handling 7.Mounting and dismounting heavy equipment 8. working with sharp objects 9.Noise 10. using hand and power tools 11.Dust 12. wet/slippery surface 13.Whole body vibration 14. mists 15.Exhaust emissions and CO 16. ladder and scaffolds 17.Whipping air hoses and other hazards 18. fumes of compressed air equipment 19.cave-in 20. vapors 21.Burns 22. radiation

Causes of accidents: There are some safety and health factors which are unique to construction and some which are not. Awareness of these factors will help in preventing the occurrence of occupationally related construction incidents. 1.Actual physical hazards 2.Environmental hazards (toxic atmospheres, oxygen deficiency, noise, radiation and dust.