Lab findings in liver disease page for hoslink

In interpreting serologic tests for hepatitis, remember that all patients with jaundice do not have hepatitis and that all cases of hepatitis are not due to viruses.

• Hepatitis A antigen (HA Ag) is found in the stool 5 days to 6 days before the onset of symptoms or hepatic biochemical abnormalities. Abnormal endometrial biopsy results The antigen disappears from the stool immediately after the appearance of the antibody (Fig. Endometrial biopsy recovery 4-3).

• Hepatitis a antibody (anti-HAV) appears in the serum soon after onset of the acute illness; its appearance coincides with an increase in serum transaminases (Fig. Endometrial biopsy video 4-3). Pain after endometrial biopsy Detection of anti-HAV indicates that the patient has had the infection in the past, will be resistant to subsequent hepatitis a infections, and is no longer infective. Cervical biopsy recovery The IgM class of anti-HAV appears 1 week to 6 weeks after infection and indicates that HAV infection occurred within the prior 4 weeks to 8 weeks.

Endometrial biopsy complications Anti-HAV IgM is no longer detectable 3 months to 6 months after infection. Hysteroscopy endometrial biopsy The IgG class antibody peaks 5 weeks to 10 weeks after infection and indicates that HAV infection occurred more than 8 weeks earlier. Breast biopsy recovery time The IgG antibody remains elevated indefinitely.

• Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) is the first serologic marker to appear, preceding clinical and laboratory evidence of disease by 1 week to 6 weeks (Fig. Endometrial biopsy ivf 4-5). Endometrial biopsy pain This persists throughout the clinical illness and usually disappears just before the transminases increase. Breast biopsy recovery Persistence for greater than 6 months indicates either development of chronic hepatitis or a benign carrier state . Endometrial biopsy results time frame The presence of HBsAg indicates infection with HBV and implies infectivity. Endometrial biopsy results interpretation The disappearance of HBsAg from the serum does not assure recovery from infection.

• Antibody to HbsAg (anti-HB ) is the last serological marker to appear . Endometrial biopsy results It is not detected until the end of convalescence, serveral weeks after HBsAg disappears. Bleeding after endometrial biopsy During this “serologic gap” period, neither HBsAg nor anti-HB, is present in the serum. What is endometrial biopsy Antibody to HBsAg (anti-HB) must be identified at this stage in order to establish hepatitis infection. Endometrial biopsy results how long The rate of anti-HB appearance may depend on the rapidity of HBsAg clearance. What is an endometrial biopsy Detectable antibody is present for at least 18 months after its appearance and may persist indefinitely.

• Hepatitis B Core Antigen (HB Ag) is not found in the serum. Biopsy endometrial This antigen is present in liver cell nuclei at the same time that HBsAg is present in the serum and in liver cell cytoplasm.

• Antibody to HB Ag (anti-HB ) appears in the serum shortly after the appearance of HBsAg. Skin biopsy results time This is the first antibody to appear, filling the “serologic gap” described above. Pipelle endometrial biopsy Its presence implies a recent HBV infection. Endometrial biopsy procedure High serum titers correlate well with the continuing presence of viral antigens in the liver. Endometrial biopsy side effects The highest levels of anti-HB are found in the chronic HBsAg carrier state. Liver biopsy recovery time This can be lifelong but it does not confer immunity as does anti-HB.

• Hepatitis B e Antigen (HB Ag) is found only in serum that is reactive for HBsAg. Abnormal endometrial biopsy results The biophysical chracteristics and origin of HB Ag remain unknown. Endometrial biopsy recovery It appears in the serum of all patients with acute hepatitis B at about the same time HBsAg appears and before the appearance of any detectable biochemical abnormality. Endometrial biopsy video At this time the patient is most infectious. Pain after endometrial biopsy The antigen usually lasts for 2 weeks to 6 weeks and disappears before clearance of HBsAg. Cervical biopsy recovery Disappearance of HB Ag may be interpreted as probable recovery and clearance of HBsAg. Endometrial biopsy complications The detection of HB Ag in serum for 10 weeks or more after the onset of illness implies progression of the hepatitis B infection to chronic liver diseae. Hysteroscopy endometrial biopsy In some patients with chronic hepatitis, HB Ag eventually disappears from the blood; in others, it persists. Breast biopsy recovery time The presence of HB Ag indicates that the patient’s blood is infectious.

• Antibody to HB Ag (anti-HB ) develops after the detection of anti-HB but before the appearance of anti-HB. Endometrial biopsy ivf It usually appears when HB Ag disappears. Endometrial biopsy pain The seroconversion from HB Ag to anti-HB, indicates that the infection and the disease are on the wane. Breast biopsy recovery In the chronic carrier state, presence of anti-HB, is a favourable sign and indicates decreased infectiousness.

Therefore, the clinical stage may be established only by using the patient’s history, physical findings, sequential liver function tests, and sequential serologic tests.

• At the present time there is no specific serologic test for the non-A, non-B form of hepatitis. Endometrial biopsy results time frame This is a diagnosis of exclusion. Endometrial biopsy results interpretation It should be considered in a patient who develops hepatitis 5 weeks to 10 weeks following blood transfusion and who is negative for anti-HAV, HBsAg, anti-HB and anti-HB.

• Markedly increased SGOT (AST) and SGPT (ALT) (from 10 times to 100 times normal) indicates severity of liver cell damage; both enzymes are usually increased to the same degree; a fluctuating course of the transminases is frequently seen in non-A, non-B hepatitis.

• Liver biopsy is used to differentiate among the various stages of hepatitis: protracted acute hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis, and chronic active hepatitis.

• Increased blood ammonia reflects impaired hepatic detoxification of proteins and occurs in hepatic failure or coma and after surgical anastomosis of the portal vein to the inferior vena cava.

• Blood Urea Nitrogen is often decreased with severe liver disease owing to impaired protein metabolism; it may be increased with gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage

• Marked increase in serum alkaline phosphatase reflects increased synthesis of alkaline phosphatase proximal to the site of intrahepatic obstruction and also indicates impaired excretion of the enzyme.

• Markedly increased conjugated (direct) bilirubin, y-glutamyl transpeptidase, 5-nucleotidase, and serum cholesterol all reflect intrahepatic obstruction and impaired excretion.

• Prolonged prothrombin time is the result of impaired intestinal absorption of vitamin K and impaired hepatic synthesis of prothrombin and factors VII, IX, and X.

• Increased serum amylase begins after 3-6 hr, peaks at 20-30 hr, persists for 48-72 hr; some patients with severe disease may have normal values; no correlation exists between the severity of pancreatitis and the degree of serum amylase elevation. Endometrial biopsy results Amylase passes from the inflamed pancreas directly into the bloodstream or into the peritoneal cavity.

• Increased urine amylase occurs 6-10 hr after serum amylase elevation; urine levels are higher and of longer duration than serum levels. Bleeding after endometrial biopsy This is believed to be due to a reversible renal tubular defect, which results in decreased amylase reabsorption.

• Increased amylase-creatinine clearance ratio; amylase clearance by the kidneys is accelerated in acute pancreatitis; this also occurs in nonpancreatic diseases, such as diabetic ketoacidosis and extensive burns

• Decreased serum calcium occurs in severe acute pancreatitis; this is the result of calcium binding to fatty acids in fat, which undergoes from pancreatic enzyme action.

• Increased blood glucose, transient-probably due to decreased release of insulin, increased release of glucagon, and increased output of glucorticoids and catecholamines

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