Medicina veterinaria1 (1) 2002 – acta scientiarum polonorum normal adult blood sugar

The investigations were carried on the ducklings, which were given the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in a dose of 5?g /1000g of fodder. The AFB1 administration started on the second day after birds hatching and lasted for the next two or four weeks. In the blood serum of intoxicated ducklings there were determined: the thyroxine – T4 level, the alkaline phosphatase – ALP activity, the total protein level and, after the electrophoretic separation, the content of protein fractions. It was found that the two or four week-period of AFB1 administration causes decrease of thyroxine level. However, the thyroxine level in ducklings, which were given AFB1 for two weeks, was lower than in those, which were given AFB1 longer – for four weeks. It was also shown, that AFB1 administration was accompanied by the ALP activity decrease and the decrease of protein content in blood, resulting mainly from the albumins content decrease.

The obtained data confirm the high toxicity of small amounts of AFB1 in ducklings, but also indicate the possibility of change of thyroid gland hormones level in the intoxicated birds.

The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of lead acetate on the distribution of endogenic zinc and copper in the tissues and blood of rabbits. The study was carried out on healthy male and female mongrel rabbits. Lead acetate at the doses of 0,4 or 2 mg/kg b.w. was injected once intravenously. The rabbits in the control group were treated with 0,9% saline solution. On hour 72 following lead administration, the rabbits were sacrificed and the samples of liver, kidneys, brain, skeletal muscles, perirenal fat and blood were taken. The samples were mineralized dry in a muffle furnace at 450 0C. The level of zinc and copper directly and lead in the organic phase of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) were determined by the absorption atomic spectrophotometry method using Pye Unicam SP-9 counter. It has been found that the administration of lead acetate dependent on the dose applied changes the levels of zinc and copper in the examined tissues. The exposure to lead acetate at a dose of 0,4 mg/kg decreases the level of endogenic zinc and copper in the liver, kidneys and brain of rabbits. Hovewer, the administration of lead acetate at the dose of 2 mg/kg does not affect the level of zinc and copper in the tissues of rabbits.

The fermentation parameters of content of turkeys’ digestion tract were analysed. Twenty 17–22 week-old turkeys of Big-6 race were invastigated. After slaughtering the animals, a small intestine, caeca and rectum was isolated, collective samples were made from the contents of the intestines and incubated in anaerobic conditions at 40 oC. The products of in vitro fermentation (volatile fatty acids – VFA, methane, carbon dioxide, ammonium, lactic acid) and pH were measured during the experiment (at the beginning, at 4th, 6th and 24th hours of fermentation). Cecal content produced methane at the highest emission rate and the CO2:CH4 ratio was there the lowest (2,75 between the 1st and 4th hours of fermentation). The production of methane was a bit smaller in the rectal content, which influenced the CO2:CH4 ratio (5,4 at the time ditto), but the concentration of methane in the small intestine was minimal. The highest concentration of total VFA from the start to 6th hour of incubation wasobserved in the rectum (0,82–2,37 ?mol/ml of sample), lower in the content of caeca (0,63–2,07 ?mol/ml) and the lowest in the small intestine contents (0,24–1,29 ?mol/ml).The total volume and ratios of VFA produced in the digestive tract allow to establish a pattern of fermentation and give the basis for chicken-farmers and investigators to manipulate digestion processes.

In the present study we explored the effect of sinigrin after one and two weeks treatment on lipid metabolism and changes of plasma thyroid hormone levels (T3, T4, fT3, fT4). The experiment was conducted in vivo on 32 male Wistar rats with an initial body weight of 140 ? 5g. The animals were divided into 4 groups (n=8) and were maintained under standard conditions. Sinigrin was given during one and two weeks. The animals from two control groups were given water intragastrically in dose 1ml?100g–1 body weight. The sinigrin was dissolved in water and was given in dose 2mg?100g–1 body weight by oral administration during one and two weeks. Body weights of the individual rats were recorded every two days. After appropriate time the animals were decapitated and their serum and liver were collected for analysis. The serum was used for the estimation of plasma thyroid hormones levels, free fatty acids, triglyceride, phospholipids, total, free and esterified cholesterol contents. This experiment has shown that when sinigrin was given to rats in that dose 2 mg?100g–1 b.w. it was a material factor interfering with lipid metabolism. It pertained to influence of sinigrin only after two weeks treatment. Sinigrin administration increased significantly free fatty acids, total cholesterol and estrificated cholesterol concentration. On the contrary the level of triglycerides was decreased considerably. These changes were not significant at group of animals being fed of sinigrin during one week but in this group of rats the considerable increase of T3 was noticed in serum in comparison with control group.

Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ) are widely used to induce experimental diabetes in animals through destruction of beta-cells of the pancreatic islets. In addition, alloxan cytotoxic activity may affect many other types of cells leading to damage of some internal organs. However, there is lack of information about the direct effect of STZ. This experiment was undertaken to compare the effect of alloxan and STZ action on the basis of selected metabolic parameters (glucose, free fatty acids, triglycerides, and ?-amino nitrogen), insulin concentration and activity of some enzymes in blood serum in rats. 75 mg/kg b.w. of alloxan or STZ were administrated intravenously. Rats were sacrificed 30 min after injection and their blood serum was sampled for analysis. Changes in the analysed parameters after alloxan and STZ treatment were not identical. Alloxan evoked a dramatic rise in blood glucose, increased activity of gluthatione peroxidase and diminished AlAT/AspAt ratio, while STZ did not reveal such effects. These results indicate that STZ seems to be more selective agent inducing experimental diabetes because, contrary to alloxan, does not reveal cytotoxic influence on the other tissues, especially on liver cells.

One of the most important elements of homeostasis regulation is keeping a constant level of glucose in the blood. Concentration of this carbohydrate is regulated by a few different factors, mainly by insulin. However, the last research indicates the important role of another factors, too. In this article we present results of the experiments with using glucagon-like peptide-1, a peptide secreted and released from lower intestine cells, called L-cells. Experiments were provided on 48, male Wistar rats, weighting about 200 g. The in situ pancreas perfusion method was used in these research. Rats were divided into 8-rats groups, and pancreases were perfused with buffer containing 3 different glucose levels (0; 6.66 and 25 mmol/l) and GLP-1 (100 pmol/l). The results shows the corelations between glucose and insulin levels in the bloob after the stimulation of GLP-1. In the case of no glucose in the basic medium, there was very low level of insulin in the perfuzates. When 25 mmol/l glucose was added we could not conclude anything about GLP-1 stimulation, cause of too strong stimulation by very high glucose concentration. The most markedly observed insulin output was at 6.66 mmol/l.