Properties of solids

As you should remember from the kinetic molecular theory, the molecules in solids are not moving in the same manner as those in liquids or gases. Can u get trichomoniasis from oral Solid molecules simply vibrate and rotate in place rather than move about. Std trichomoniasis medication Solids are generally held together by ionic or strong covalent bonding, and the attractive forces between the atoms, ions, or molecules in solids are very strong. Signs of trichomoniasis in males In fact, these forces are so strong that particles in a solid are held in fixed positions and have very little freedom of movement.

Metronidazole trichomoniasis Solids have definite shapes and definite volumes and are not compressible to any extent.

There are two main categories of solids—crystalline solids and amorphous solids. How is trichomoniasis diagnosed Crystalline solids are those in which the atoms, ions, or molecules that make up the solid exist in a regular, well-defined arrangement. Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men The smallest repeating pattern of crystalline solids is known as the unit cell, and unit cells are like bricks in a wall—they are all identical and repeating. Trichomoniasis men The other main type of solids are called the amorphous solids. Trichomoniasis pictures Amorphous solids do not have much order in their structures. Sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis Though their molecules are close together and have little freedom to move, they are not arranged in a regular order as are those in crystalline solids. Trichomoniasis discharge Common examples of this type of solid are glass and plastics.

Ionic solids—Made up of positive and negative ions and held together by electrostatic attractions. Trichomoniasis treatment dosage They’re characterized by very high melting points and brittleness and are poor conductors in the solid state. Trichomoniasis parasite An example of an ionic solid is table salt, NaCl.

Molecular solids—Made up of atoms or molecules held together by London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, or hydrogen bonds. What causes trichomoniasis Characterized by low melting points and flexibility and are poor conductors. Treatment for trichomonas vaginalis An example of a molecular solid is sucrose.

Covalent-network (also called atomic) solids—Made up of atoms connected by covalent bonds; the intermolecular forces are covalent bonds as well. Where does trichomoniasis come from Characterized as being very hard with very high melting points and being poor conductors. Treatment of trichomoniasis Examples of this type of solid are diamond and graphite, and the fullerenes. Trichomoniasis causes As you can see below, graphite has only 2-D hexagonal structure and therefore is not hard like diamond. Flagyl trichomoniasis The sheets of graphite are held together by only weak London forces!

Metallic solids—Made up of metal atoms that are held together by metallic bonds. How to cure trichomoniasis Characterized by high melting points, can range from soft and malleable to very hard, and are good conductors of electricity.

Crystalline solids are a three dimensional collection of individual atoms, ions, or whole molecules organized in repeating patterns. What is trichomoniasis std These atoms, ions, or molecules are called lattice points and are typically visualized as round spheres. Images of trichomoniasis The two dimensional layers of a solid are created by packing the lattice point “spheres” into square or closed packed arrays. Trichomoniasis long term effects (See Below).

Stacking the two dimensional layers on top of each other creates a three dimensional lattice point arrangement represented by a unit cell. Metronidazole for trichomoniasis A unit cell is the smallest collectionof lattice points that can be repeated to create the crystalline solid. What is trichomonas infection The solid can be envisioned as the result of the stacking a great number of unit cells together. Trichomonas vaginalis life cycle The unit cell of a solid is determined by the type of layer (square or close packed), the way each successive layer is placed on the layer below, and the coordination number for each lattice point (the number of “spheres” touching the “sphere” of interest.)

Placing a second square array layer directly over a first square array layer forms a “simple cubic” structure. Can you have trichomonas for years and not know it The simple “cube” appearance of the resulting unit cell (Figure 3a) is the basis for the name of this three dimensional structure. How can you get trichomoniasis This packing arrangement is often symbolized as “AA…”, the letters refer to the repeating order of the layers, starting with the bottom layer. How to get rid of trichomoniasis The coordination number of each lattice point is six. Male trichomoniasis This becomes apparent when inspecting part of an adjacent unit cell (Figure 3b). Trichomoniasis symptoms female The unit cell in Figure 3a appears to contain eight corner spheres, however, the total number of spheres within the unit cell is 1 (only 1/8th of each sphere is actually inside the unit cell). Trichomoniasis symptoms come and go The remaining 7/8ths of each corner sphere resides in 7 adjacent unit cells.

The considerable space shown between the spheres in Figures 3b is misleading: lattice points in solids touch as shown in Figure 3c. Trichomonas vaginalis images For example, the distance between the centers of two adjacent metal atoms is equal to the sum of their radii. Whats trichomoniasis Refer again to Figure 3b and imagine the adjacent atoms are touching. Trichomoniasis symptoms in males The edge of the unit cell is then equal to 2r (where r = radius of the atom or ion) and the value of the face diagonal as a function of r can be found by applying Pythagorean’s theorem (a 2 + b 2 = c 2) to the right triangle created by two edges and a face diagonal (Figure 4a). Trichomonas vaginalis pdf Reapplication of the theorem to another right triangle created by an edge, a face diagonal, and the body diagonal allows for the determination of the body diagonal as a function of r (Figure 4b).

Few metals adopt the simple cubic structure because of inefficient use of space. Symptoms for trichomoniasis The density of a crystalline solid is related to its “percent packing efficiency”. What is trichomoniasis caused by The packing efficiency of a simple cubic structure is only about 52%. Trichomoniasis discharge pictures (48% is empty space!)

A more efficiently packed cubic structure is the “body-centered cubic” (bcc). Trichomoniasis in women The first layer of a square array is expanded slightly in all directions. Signs of trichomoniasis Then, the second layer is shifted so its spheres nestle in the spaces of the first layer (Figures 5a, b). What is trichomonas vaginalis This repeating order of the layers is often symbolized as “ABA…”. How can you catch trichomoniasis Like Figure 3b, the considerable space shown between the spheres in Figure 5b is misleading: spheres are closely packed in bcc solids and touch along the body diagonal. Trichomoniasis cdc The packing efficiency of the bcc structure is about 68%. Trichomonas vaginalis treatment The coordination number for an atom in the bcc structure is eight. Symptoms of trichomoniasis in males How many total atoms are there in the unit cell for a bcc structure? Draw a diagonal line connecting the three atoms marked with an “x” in Figure 5b. Symptoms trichomoniasis Assuming the atoms marked “x” are the same size, tightly packed and touching, what is the value of this body diagonal as a function of r, the radius? Find the edge and volume of the cell as a function of r.

A cubic closest packed (ccp) structure is created by layering close packed arrays. Trichomoniasis symptoms in men The spheres of the second layer nestle in half of the spaces of the first layer. What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis in males The spheres of the third layer directly overlay the other half of the first layer spaces while nestling in half the spaces of the second layer. How to treat trichomoniasis The repeating order of the layers is “ABC…” (Figures 6 & 7). How is trichomoniasis treated The coordination number of an atom in the ccp structure is twelve (six nearest neighbors plus three atoms in layers above and below) and the packing efficiency is 74%.

If the cubic close packed structure is rotated by 45° the face centered cube (fcc) unit cell can be viewed (Figure 8). Trichomoniasis images The fcc unit cell contains 8 corner atoms and an atom in each face. Can trichomoniasis come back The face atoms are shared with an adjacent unit cell so each unit cell contains ½ a face atom. Signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis Atoms of the face centered cubic (fcc) unit cell touch across the face diagonal (Figure 9). Can trichomoniasis be cured What is the edge, face diagonal, body diagonal, and volume of a face centered cubic unit cell as a function of the radius?

In ionic compounds, the larger ions become the lattice point “spheres” that are the framework of the unit cell. Sti trichomoniasis The smaller ions nestle into the depressions (the “holes”) between the larger ions. Is trichomoniasis an std There are three types of holes: “cubic”, “octahedral”, and “tetrahedral”. How is trichomoniasis tested Cubic and octahedral holes occur in square array structures; tetrahedral and octahedral holes appear in close-packed array structures (Figure 10). Causes of trichomoniasis Which is usually the larger ion – the cation or the anion? How can the periodic table be used to predict ion size? What is the coordination number of an ion in a tetrahedral hole? an octahedral hole? a cubic hole?

Two ways to determine the empirical formula of an ionic solid are: 1) from the number of each ion contained within 1 unit cell 2) from the ratio of the coordination numbers of the cations and anions in the solid.

First Method: When using the first method, remember most atoms in a unit cell are shared with other cells. How do you test for trichomoniasis Table 2 lists types of atoms and the fraction contained in the unit cell. Trichomoniasis sores The number of each ion in the unit cell is determined: 1/8 of each of the 8 corner X ions and 1/4 of each of the 12 edge Y ions are found within a single unit cell. Std trichomoniasis Therefore, the cell contains 1 X ion (8/8 = 1) for every 3 Y ions (12/4 = 3) giving an empirical formula of XY3. Trichomoniasis pics Which is the cation? anion? When writing the formula of ionic solids, which comes first?

Second Method: The second method is less reliable and requires the examination of the crystal structure to determine the number of cations surrounding an anion and vice versa. Trichomonas infection The structure must be expanded to include more unit cells. Symptoms of trichomonas infection Figure 12 shows the same solid in Figure 11 expanded to four adjacent unit cells. How do you treat trichomoniasis Examination of the structure shows that there are 2 X ions coordinated to every Y ion and 6 Y ions surrounding every X ion. What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis (An additional unit cell must be projected in front of the page to see the sixth Y ion ). Is trichomoniasis a bacterial infection A 2 to 6 ratio gives the same empirical formula, XY3.