Staphylococcus aureus and surgical site infection. the benefit of screening and decolonization before surgery (pdf download available)

[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate studies assessing the effectiveness of a bundle of nasal decolonization and glycopeptide prophylaxis for preventing surgical site infections caused by Gram positive bacteria among patients undergoing cardiac operations or total joint replacement procedures.

PubMed (1995 to 2011), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, CINAHL, Embase, and were searched to identify relevant studies. Staphylococcus aureus images Pertinent journals and conference abstracts were hand searched. How to treat staphylococcus Study authors were contacted if more data were needed. Staphylococcus saprophyticus cause ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and cohort studies that assessed nasal decolonization or glycopeptide prophylaxis, or both, for preventing Gram positive surgical site infections compared with standard care.

Patients undergoing cardiac operations or total joint replacement procedures. Staphylococcus aureus sepsis DATA EXTRACTION AND STUDY APPRAISAL: Two authors independently extracted data from each paper and a random effects model was used to obtain summary estimates. What causes staphylococcus Risk of bias was assessed using the Downs and Black or the Cochrane scales.

Staphylococcus aureus treatment and prevention Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q and I(2) statistics.

39 studies were included. Staphylococcus epidermidis morphology Pooled effects of 17 studies showed that nasal decolonization had a significantly protective effect against surgical site infections associated with Staphylococcus aureus (pooled relative risk 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.50) when all patients underwent decolonization (0.40, 0.29 to 0.55) and when only S aureus carriers underwent decolonization (0.36, 0.22 to 0.57). Types of staphylococcus Pooled effects of 15 prophylaxis studies showed that glycopeptide prophylaxis was significantly protective against surgical site infections related to methicillin (meticillin) resistant S aureus (MRSA) compared with prophylaxis using β lactam antibiotics (0.40, 0.20 to 0.80), and a non-significant risk factor for methicillin susceptible S aureus infections (1.47, 0.91 to 2.38). Staphylococcus epidermidis characteristics Seven studies assessed a bundle including decolonization and glycopeptide prophylaxis for only patients colonized with MRSA and found a significantly protective effect against surgical site infections with Gram positive bacteria (0.41, 0.30 to 0.56).

Surgical programs that implement a bundled intervention including both nasal decolonization and glycopeptide prophylaxis for MRSA carriers may decrease rates of surgical site infections caused by S aureus or other Gram positive bacteria.

[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria represent a major public health burden, not just in terms of morbidity and mortality, but also in terms of increased expenditure on patient management and implementation of infection control measures. Staphylococcus epidermidis infections Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. Define staphylococcus aureus are established pathogens in the hospital environment, and their frequent multidrug resistance complicates therapy. Staphylococcus aureus mrsa The archetypal hospital “superbug”, methicillin-resistant S. Staphylococcus aureus gram negative aureus (MRSA), regularly attracts mass-media interest and, in many countries, there is political pressure to reduce MRSA infection rates, with some progress now being made in the United Kingdom and the United States. Morphology of staphylococcus aureus To compound these established problems, we have witnessed the emergence and spread of virulent clones of MRSA in the community, and of Clostridium difficile in hospitals. Prevention of staphylococcus aureus Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clones are major community pathogens in many parts of the world, but are now being challenged by new conjugate vaccines. Diseases caused by staphylococcus aureus Using combinations of molecular epidemiological tools, which characterize the resistant isolates and their resistance determinants, scientists can track highly successful bacterial strains at local, national, and international levels. Staphylococcus pneumoniae These methods have provided new insights into the evolution of key pathogens, and this information may aid the design of control strategies and vaccines. How to prevent staphylococcus aureus In addition, the development of new antimicrobials including oxazolidinones, lipopeptides, glycylcyclines, ketolides, and new generations of fluoroquinolones, antistaphylococcal b-lactams, and glycopeptides must remain a high priority for the continued effective treatment of infections caused by resistant strains. Antibiotics for staphylococcus aureus So far, resistance to these newer agents is identified rarely in surveillance programs, but occasional reports of resistance causing therapeutic failure (e.g., with linezolid, daptomycin, telithromycin, or newer fluoroquinolones) give cause for concern. Staphylococcus aureus treatment natural The emergence of antibiotic resistance is inevitable, but we must seek to decrease its impact and prolong the effectiveness of the agents available to us.