Structure of the knee and how it works new health advisor exercises to avoid after hip replacement

The knee is the largest and most complex joint in the human body. It provides connectivity for the thigh bone or femur and the shin bone or tibia. Made up of bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and synovial fluid, the knee has the ability to bend, straighten and rotate sideways. Read on to understand the structures of the knee, and how it works. Structure of the Knee

• Tibia. The second longest bone in the body lies between the knee and the ankle. On the top of its thickened end known as tibial tubercle, tibia flattens into a plateau on which protrudes two menisci. They’re crescent-shaped cartilaginous structures that provide stability and shock absorption for the knee.

• Patella. This triangular shaped bone is located to the front of the knee where it glides along the femoral condyles at the bottom front surface of the femur.


It moves when there is knee movement, relieving friction between the bones and muscles.

Cartilage is the smooth, white, fibrous tissue covering the extremities of bones where they come into contact with other bones. To some extent, the stability of the structure of the knee and its smooth operation depends on cartilage in three places as follows:

• Articular cartilage covers the ends of any bones forming a joint. In the case of the knee, articular cartilage is located on the ends of femur, tibia and the inner surface of the patella. Lubrication for cartilage is provided by synovial fluid produced by the joint lining (synovial membrane).

Another structure of the knee is the joint capsule, a fibrous tissue that encapsulates the knee joint. The inside surface of the capsule is soft tissue known as the synovium which secretes synovial fluid, the lubricant that helps the knee joint to operate smoothly. 7. Bursa

Bursas are fluid-filled sacs responsible for cushioning joints and reduction of friction between muscles, ligaments and tendons. The knee contains 13 bursas located in various places underneath ligaments and tendons. The patella bursa located under the skin to the front of the knee is the most outstanding. 8. Nerves

The tibial and peroneal nerves are the two main nerves around the knee. The two are formed when the sciatic nerve splits above the knee. The tibial nerve runs along the back of the lower leg while the peroneal nerve runs around the outside of the knee, and continues down the front of the lower leg. Both nerves end up in the foot. 9. Blood Vessels

The two main blood vessels in the knee area are popliteal artery and popliteal vein. Both run beside the tibial nerve in the back of the lower leg and terminate in the foot. Serious damage to the popliteal artery which supplies blood to the lower leg and foot, will spell an end to the leg. Ways to Make Your Knees Stronger

Movements of the knee involve the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of the thigh. Other muscles such as the glutes also contribute to the health of your knees. By regularly doing the following exercises that involve stretching and working these muscles, you will strength them and in turn maintain or improve the health of your knees:

Today’s lifestyle is notorious for the consumption of inflammatory foods. The result is that more people are suffering from inflammatory diseases including those that are detrimental to the healthy maintenance of the structure of the knee and other joints. But by making the following lifestyle changes, you can stop the inflammation problem and keep your knees healthy: